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Zoonymie des Odonates. Le nom de genre Sympetrum, Newman, 1833.

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 Zoonymie ? L'étude des noms des animaux (zoo). Comme dans Toponymie, Oronymie, Hydronymie, ou Anthroponymie, mais pour les bêtes. 

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Voir aussi :

 

 

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Résumé .

Sympetrum, Newman, 1833.Des deux suffixes grecs σύμπυκνος, sympiezein   "comprimé" et  ἦτρον, êtron "abdomen" : "qui a l'abdomen comprimé latéralement".  En 1833, l'entomologiste britannique Edward Newman répartit les Libellulidae en  quatre genres selon la forme de leur abdomen (-etrum) : les Sympetrum  "à l'abdomen latéralement comprimé"  comme S. vulgatum, les Orthetrum "à l'abdomen parallèle latéralement" comme O. cancellatum et O coerulescens, les Platetrum "à l'abdomen dilaté et aplati" comme L.depressa, et les Leptetrum "à l'abdomen conique et pointu" comme L. quadrimaculata. Seuls les deux premiers genres ont été conservés, mais la distinction par la morphologie de l'abdomen a perdu de sa pertinence.

 

 

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I. LA PUBLICATION ORIGINALE. SYMPETRUM NEWMAN 1833 ENT. MAG. , 1:511.

Newman, Entomological Magazine vol. 1, London, F. Westley & A.H. Davis, page 511.

En ligne.

 

 

Genus.—SYMPETRUM (d). Newman.

Caput metathorace latius: propodeon, podeonque in commisura incrassata: segmenta sequentia lateribus compressa: protelum ac adjacentia plus minusve incrassata: tetum minutum: teli appendices notas caeteris distinctas vix praebent: alarum stigma utrinque convexum. [c'est moi qui souligne "comprimé latéralement"]

The remaining species of Dr. Leach's genus, Libellula, widely differ from each other in the form of the posterior segments, and in the length of the superior caudal appendages of the male; but in none of them are these segments compressed as in the genus Sympetrum; they will, in all probability, resolve eventually into three distinct genera, and as such I had once prepared them for publication, together with Sympetrum, as below, (e) but a dislike to name-giving induced me to relinquish them.

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(d) σύμπυκνος   comprimo, ἦτρον, abdomen.

(e) Sympetrum; abdomen laterally compressed. Ex. Vulgatum, Linn. &c.

 Orthetrum; abdomen laterally parallel. Ex. Caerulescens, Fab. Cancellatum, Linn. 

Platetrum; abdomen depressed and dilated. Ex. Depressum, Linn.Conspurcatum, Linn.

 Leptetrum; abdomen conical and pointed. Ex. Quadrimacutum, Linn. Praenubilum, Newman.

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II. ÉTUDE DU NOM.

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Newman commence par créer le nom Sympetrum, et il en donne l'étymologie : "σύμπυκνος   comprimo, ἦτρον, abdomen.", puis il donne le développement suivant :

"Les espèces restantes du genre du Docteur Leach, Libellula, diffèrent largement l'une de l'autre par la forme des segments postérieurs et par la longueur des appendices caudaux supérieurs du mâle; mais dans aucun d'eux, ces segments ne sont comprimés comme dans le genre Sympetrum; ils se résoudront vraisemblablement en trois genres distincts, et à ce titre, je les avais préparés d'abord pour la publication, avec Sympetrum, comme ci-dessous (e), mais une aversion pour la création de noms m'engage à les abandonner."

Il ajoute ensuite en note :

"(e) Sympetrum; abdomen comprimé latéralement : exemple Vulgatum Linn. &c.

 Orthetrum; abdomen aux bords latéraux parallèles: Ex. Caerulescens, Fab. Cancellatum, Linn. 

Platetrum; abdomen aplati et dilaté  . Ex Depressum, Linn. Conspurcatum, Linn.

 Leptetrum; abdomen conique et pointu. Ex. Quadrimaculum, Linn. Praenubilum, Newman."

Les quatre noms de genre, dont ne resteront que les deux premiers, sont tous composés sur le même suffixe grec  ἦτρον, êtron, abdomen.". Liddell et Scott 1889  indiquent pour êtron : ἦτρον, êtron : the part below the navel, the abdomen, Plat., Xen., etc.  ἦτρον, ου, τό,

En Zoologie, d'autres noms reprennent cette construction en -etrum comme Gymnetrum Agassiz 1846 (le Gymnètre), ou très récemment dans les Libellulidae le genre Trithetrum Dijkstra & Pilgrim 2007. Concernant ce nom, les auteurs précisent dans leur publication : 

"Etymology The name Trithetrum (a neuter) is an analogy to the -hemis names derived from -etrum names (e.g. Orthemis from Orthetrum); the probable origin of the suffix themis, now frequent in Libellulidae (Fliedner 1997). The reversed’ derivation fromTrithemis to Trithetrum conveys the deceptive similarity of T. navasi and T. congoense to Trithemis Brauer, 1868 (red and dark species, respectively) in the field. Trithetrum is also an amalgamation of Trithemis and Sympetrum." Dijkstra, K.-D.B.; Pilgrim, E.M. 2007: Trithetrum, a new genus of African dragonflies formerly placed in Sympetrum (Odonata, Libellulidae). Journal of  Afrotropical zoology, 3: 77–81

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Conclusion .

Sympetrum Newman 1833 : Des deux suffixes grecs σύμπυκνος, sympiezein    "comprimé" et  ἦτρον, êtron "abdomen" : "qui a l'abdomen comprimé latéralement". En 1833, l'entomologiste britannique Edward Newman répartit les Libellulidés en  quatre genres selon la forme de leur abdomen (-etrum) : les Sympetrum " à l'abdomen latéralement comprimé"  comme S. vulgatum, les Orthetrum "à l'abdomen parallèle latéralement" comme O. cancellatum et O coerulescens, les Platetrum "à l'abdomen dilaté et aplati" comme L.depressa, et les Leptetrum "à l'abdomen conique et pointu" comme L. quadrimaculata. Seuls les deux premiers genres ont été conservés, mais la distinction par la morphologie de l'abdomen a perdu de sa pertinence.

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LES AUTEURS EN ZOONYMIE.

Tous les auteurs sont unanimes dans leur interprétation de ce nom de genre, sauf Précigout et Prud'omme qui, dans Les Libellules de Poitou-Charentes, montrent qu'ils n'ont pas consulté la publication originale de Newman. 

PRECIGOUT ET PRUD'HOMME / POITOU-CHARENTES-NATURE:

http://www.poitou-charentes-nature.asso.fr/sympetrum-noir/

 "Etymologie. Du grec sym = avec et petra = pierre, rocher = pour évoquer l'habitude de ce genre à se poser sur les pierres et les rochers. "

DRAGONFLYPIX

http://www.dragonflypix.com/etymology.html

Sympetrum : Newman,1833 from Grk. συμπιέζω = to squeeze together +
ἦτρον = abdomen
⮎ Newman described Sympetrum species as having the 'abdomen laterally compressed' (as distinct from Orthetrum species, which have the 'abdomen laterally parallel')

ENDERSBY & FLIEDNER, 2015

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283318421_The_Naming_of_Australia's_Dragonflies

"Orthetrum Newman, 1833: 511 Gr. ὀρθός =straight + ἦτρον = abdomen. Newman (1833) wrote: “The remaining species of Dr. Leach’s genus, Libellula, widely differ from each other in the form of the posterior segments, and in the length of the superior caudal appendages of the male; … they will, in all probability, resolve eventually into three distinct genera, and as such I had prepared them for publication, together with Sympetrum as below, but a dislike to name-giving induced me to relinquish them

Sympetrum; abdomen laterally compressed.

Orthetrum; abdomen laterally parallel.

Platetrum; abdomen depressed and dilated.

Leptetrum; abdomen conical and pointed.” {Neuter}"

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FLIEDNER 2009.

http://www.entomologie-mv.de/download/virgo-9/Virgo%200902%20Die%20wissenschaftlichen%20Namen%20der%20Libellen%20in%20Burmeisters.pdf

"Orthetrum [gr. orthos - gerade; ētron - Unterleib~Abdomen] erhielt den Namen, weil das Abdomen gerade sei. Newman kannte keine Arten von anderer Gestalt.

Aber selbst, wenn ein Name aus dem Griechischen oder Lateinischen hergeleitet ist, bleibt er unverständlich, wenn seine Bestandteile nicht richtig erkannt sind. So ist Sympetrum oft erklärt worden aus gr. sym- [zusammen (mit)] und petros [Stein]. Aber das ist unzutreffend: NEWMAN (1833) weist ausdrücklich darauf hin, dass er es verstanden wissen möchte als gr. sympiezein [zusammendrücken] und ētron [Unterleib~Abdomen]."

Mais même si un nom est dérivé du grec ou du latin, il reste incompréhensible si ses constituants ne sont pas sont reconnus correctement. Ainsi Sympetrum a souvent été expliqué à partir de gr. Sym- [ensemble (avec)] et petros [pierre]. Mais c'est faux: NEWMAN (1833) déclare expressément qu'il a voulu comme gr. sympiezein [comprimer] et ētron [Abdomen ].

Der Name Sympetrum  soll auf ein seitlich zusammengedrücktes Abdomen hinweisen, ein Merkmal, das nicht einmal für alle Arten gilt, die NEWMAN kannte (vgl. HAGEN 1888).  Le nom Sympetrum  devrait se rapporter à des espèces à  l'abdomen comprimé latéralement, une caractéristique qui ne s'applique même pas à toutes les espèces, comme Newman lui-même le savait (voir HAGEN 1888).

 

VAN HIJUM, 2005

 

sym-piezein = samengedrukt; etron = achterlijf (duidt op het smalle achterlijf)
(sym-piezein = compressé; etron = abdomen (se réfère à l'abdomen étroit))

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RÉCEPTION.

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Le genre a longtemps porté le nom de Diplax (Charpentier, 1840). En 1887, De Sélys proposa de le remplacer par Sympetrum, et Hagen en 1888 s'y opposa dans une argumentation particulièrement étayée :

HAGEN, H.A. (1888): On the genus Sympetrum, Newman. Entomologica Americana 4: 31-34. New York.

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42499#page/39/mode/1up

 

Mr. E. Newman, 1833, in Entomological Magazine, vol. I, p. 511 to 514, in a paper named "Entomological Notes," after treating some other subjects, published a new genus Sympetrum, belonging to the genus Libellula of Dr. Leach. Of the British species, belonging to this genus, are described : S. scotica, Donovan ; S. rufostigma, Newman (= L. sanguinea, Muell.) ; S. vulgatum, L. (= non, Linn. ; striolata, Chp.); S. basale, Newm. (= L. sanguinea, Muell.); S. flavolata, Newm. (= L. flaveola, L. ). The remainder of Libellula he divided into three genera, as Mr. Newman states. In a foot note the characters are given as follows :

Svmpetrum, abdomen laterally compressed — Ex. vulgatum, L.

Orthetrum, abdomen laterally parallel-- Ex. coerulescens, F., cancellatum, L.

Platerum, abdomen depressed and dilated — Ex. depressum, L. , consparcatum. E.

Leptetrurn, abdomen conical and pointed — Ex. quadrimaculatum. L. , proenubilum, Newm.

 

"They will," the author adds, "in all probability resolve eventually into three distinct genera, and as such I had once prepared them for publication together with Sympetrum as below, but a dislike to name-giving induced me to relinquish them." I think by this statement it is evident, that the three last genera, which Mr. Newman has himself later, during 43 years, never used, not even mentioned, have certainly no right of priority.

Indeed, Ento. Mag., I, p. 416, he speaks of Libellula proenubila and L.quadrimaculata, and ibid., vol. Ill, p. 151, prints in a paper of his friend Ed. Doubleday, Lib. quadrimaculata, L. depressa, L. proenubila. The characters given for the genus Sympetrum are : Caput metathorace latius (so it is in every species of Odonata) ; propodeon podeonque in commissura incrassata (common to every species of Odonata. but stronger in the males) ; segmenta sequentia lateribus compressa (among the species of Sympetrum only in the females, mostly cylindrical in the males) ; protelum ac adjacentia plus minusve incrassata (common to nearly every species of Odonata, because these parts contain the internal genitals) ; telum minutum (common to all Odonata) ; teli appendices notae caeteris distinctae vix proebent ; alarum stigma utrinque convexum (without value).

Mr. Newman, as far as I am able to ascertain, mentions only twice more the name Sympetrum. In Ento Mag., V, 484, where he concludes : "the species of Sympetrum are perfectly distinct ; the remainder of the genera and species will, I believe, stand."

In Zoologist, 1845, vol. Ill, p. 1044, he mentions Sympetrum rufostigma. Entomologist, vol. I, 1841, p. 159 and p. 205, .S. rubicunde is mentioned by Mr. Doubleday.

I find Mr. Newman's genera only twice quoted by British Scientists. Mr. J. F. Stephens, Mandibulata, vol. IV, 1836, gives not as genera but as subgenera or subgroups the four names with the short characters of

Mr. Newman, and of the new species of the monograph of Sympetrum he quotes only one. Mr. J. O. Westwood, in " Synopsis of the Genera of British Insects,"' 1839, p. 48, after the genus Libellula puts in brackets the four names and one species to each of them. As he has counted for Libellula 15 specimens it is evident that he did not accept Newman's genera.

It is difficult to understand now why some of Mr. Newman's papers were not acknowledged or at least not mentioned bv English Scientists ; however it seems to me out of place to speak here about things happily forgotten fifty years ago.

Mr. W. E. Evans British Libellulinae, London, 1845, uses Diplax from the nomenclature of Charpentier, and mentions nowhere Sympetrum.

It is impossible that this work was unknown to Mr. Newman. Zoologist, 1845, p. 1044, he speaks of the presence "of Mr. Selys in London, engaged in examining the cabinets of the London collectors, for the purpose of correctly ascertaining under what names the various species of Libellula have been described by British Entomologists." Baron De Selys paper, published Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist.,1846, p. 217, is reprinted by Mr. Newman, Zoologist, 1846, p. 1522, but nothing is said in favor of his genera, which are not even mentioned in this paper.

 

Entomologists nowadays will scarcely be able to understand the difficulties, which impeded the working fifty years ago. There was no connection to speak of between Scientists of Great Britain and the continent.

In 1843 I found Stephens' Brit. Entom. and Curtis wanting in the libraries of Berlin, Vienna, Paris and of the Jardin des Plantes. The only copy in Germany belonged to the Senator von Hayden in Frankfurt a. M., which Erichson was allowed to consult. There did not exist any yearly Record ; the first was published 1834 in Wiegman's Archiv by Burmeister.

The first Presidents Address of the Entomological Society by Mr. Children was published for distribution among the members : the first Adress of the Secretary, Mr Westwood, contain nothing on Sympetrum. The existence of the Entomological Magazine was nearly unknown on the continent. Percheron, Bibliography, p. 225, quotes it ''per Walker the 8 numbers, and in the catalogue of the Library of Victor Andouin, p. 55, we find the same statement. In the catalogues of the libraries of old prominent Scientists, Charpentier. Dejean, Guerin, Meneville, Klug, Lacordaire, Sturm, the Entomological Magazine is wanting. Burmeister, Handbuch, vol. II, p. 14, quotes ilic first volume and one number as seen by him, and this is the only copy mentioned for Germany. The first copy I saw myself, 1839, belonged to Mr. G. Marxlin in Upsala. As it was my custom, I copied for my own use all belonging to Odonata, but by a curious chance out of the copy still before me the part on Sympetrum must have been lost during my travels, and is therefore not quoted in my dissertation, 1840, and in my Review on the recent literature of Neuroptera, Stett. Ento. Zeit., 1849, p. 68, only as not seen by me. 

When in 1857 I went to London by invitation of Mr. J. E. Gray to study the British Neuroptera in the collections, I applied to Mr. E. Newman for the permission to see his own collection and that of the Entomological Club. I will never forget the kindness with which I was received by him. He spent the larger part of a whole day in showing me the collections, and as in the meantime I had made myself thoroughly acquainted with his writings, we had a detailed conversation about them, and of course also on the nomenclature of the Libellula. Zoologist, 1857, p. 5879, he speaks about my visit and says : " the Neuroptera have been recently examined and the nomenclature rectified by Dr. Hagen." 
He did not take any exception to the nomenclature used by De Selys and myself in the Revue, of which, contrary to his former intentions, he has never made a report. So I had the conviction he had relinquished Sympetrum as well as the other genera. I considered the names free and used three of them with a different character, converting them in a femmine combination, to avoid the tedious change of the species name to a neutrum. 
After all, it was not the fate of English papers only to be overlooked in those times. Mr. E. Newman himself, when he published, 1852, his paper on the classification of Neuroptera, entirely overlooked the papers of Klug, Erichson, and Stein published twelve years before. 
The names of Mr. E. Newman have not been used by any one of the many writers on Libellula during the long time since their publication, and ]\Ir. E. Newman has never taken any exception to vindicate his rights, though all important works were well known to him. He has never objected to the use of his names modified and accompanied by a different character by myself in the
Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America, in 1860. 

Mr. McLachlan introduced these names again in his List of British Neuroptera, and Baron De Selys now in his
Odonates de I'Asie mineure, 1887, has replaced Diplax by Sympetrum ; "quelques facheux que soient actuellement les changements de nomenclature — par une application exagérée du droit de priorité, il me semble juste d'adopter le nom de Sympetrum au lieu de Diplax." 
I have shown before that three of the genera were relinquished bv the author directly, and that the names were never used by himselfor anybody else, and that they could not be consideretl therefore to have the right of priority to supersede other names 37 years later. Concerning Sympetrum the analysis of its characters given shows that the character is entirely insufficient, and that Mr. Newman has never taken an exception against the non-acceptance of this genus by his own countrymen, Stephens, Westwood, Evans, and de Fonscolombe (1837) Baron De Selys, Hagen, and every writer upon Odonata since 1833. Further, that Hagen after conversing with Mr. Newman about this genus had the decided conviction, that it has been relinquished by the author also. It was at least in former years always considered that monographs in preparation, because the plates needed so much tune, had a right to supersede names published during the time. The first plate of Charpentier is dated 1828, and in 1837 Westwood saw in Bonn the big volume of plates, and therefore the name
Diplax was everywhere accepted. Probably Mr. Newman was of the same opinion as he did not object to Baron De Selys papers in 1846 and 1850. 

I think therefore the names of the genera given by Mr. Newman should not be accepted. "

 

 

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Heinrik Steinmann, World Catalogue of Odonata n° 110 .

Heinrik Steinmann, World Catalogue of Odonata n° 110 .

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SOURCES ET LIENS.

[Sympetrum sp.] Etymolotest pour odonatologiste

https://www.insecte.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=106647

http://www.dragonflypix.com/etymology.html

SOURCES ET LIENS.

— POITOU-CHARENTE NATURE (Association)

http://www.poitou-charentes-nature.asso.fr/cordulegastre-annele/

— ANTONIO (Costantino D’), VEGLIANTE (Francesca ) "Derivatio nominis libellularum europæarum"(PDF) (en Italien) Étymologie de 197 noms de Libellules européennes.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316791278_Derivatio_nominis_libellularum_europaearum

— PRÉCIGOUT (Laurent), PRUD'HOMME (Eric), 2009, Libellules de Poitou-Charentes, Ed. Poitou-Charentes Nature, 255 pages, 

 

— ENDERSBY (IAN D. ), 2012,  : Watson and Theischinger: the etymology of the dragonfly (Insecta: Odonata) names which they published  Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, vol. 145, nos. 443 & 444, pp. 34-53. ISSN 0035-9173/12/010034-20 34

https://royalsoc.org.au/images/pdf/journal/145_Endersby.pdf

— ENDERSBY (IAN D., FRS ), 2012, Etymology of the Dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) named by R.J. Tillyard, F.R.S. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 134, 1-16.

https://openjournals.library.sydney.edu.au/index.php/LIN/article/viewFile/5941/6519

— ENDERSBY (IAN D., FRS ), 2012, The Naming of Victoria’s Dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata,  Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 123(3): 155-178. 

https://www.academia.edu/28354624/The_Naming_of_Victoria_s_Dragonflies_Insecta_Odonata_

— ENDERSBY (IAN D. ), 2015, The naming's of Australia's dragonflies.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283318421_The_Naming_of_Australia%27s_Dragonflies

 http://dominique.mouchene.free.fr/libs/docs/GENE_origine_noms_odonates_Australie_Endersby_2015.pdf

— FLIEDNER (Heinrich), 2009, Die wissenschaftlichen Namen der Libellen in Burmeisters ‘Handbuch der Entomologie’ Virgo 9[5-23]

http://www.entomologie-mv.de/download/virgo-9/Virgo%200902%20Die%20wissenschaftlichen%20Namen%20der%20Libellen%20in%20Burmeisters.pdf

— FLIEDNER (Heinrich), "The scientific names of the Odonata in Burmeister’s ‘Handbuch der Entomologie 

http://dominique.mouchene.free.fr/libs/docs/GENE_Burmeister_Fliedner.pdf

— FLIEDNER (Heinrich),  1997. Die Bedeutung der wissenschaftlichen Namen Europaischer Libellen. Libellula, supplement I. Sonderband zur Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft deutschsprachiger Odonatologen (GdO) e.V. Fliedner, Bremen.

— HIJUM (Ep van ), 2005, Friese namen van libellen , TWIRRE natuur in Fryslan jaargang 16, nummer 4 page 142-147

http://natuurtijdschriften.nl/download?type=document&docid=555521

 

— Odonates costarmoricains.

http://www.nature22.com/odonates22/ordresystematique.html

— INPN.MNHN

https://inpn.mnhn.fr/espece/cd_nom/199694/tab/taxo

 

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